Bibiliography for Behavioral Disorders
Benton, David: Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and the Intelligence of Children-A Review. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 1995;7(1). A review of seven studies examining the impact of vitamin/mineral supplementation on children’s performance in intelligence tests. The taking of supplements was associated with improved performance and may be associated with improved mood and the ability to sustain attention.
Schoenthaler SJ, et.al.: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren:a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2000; 6(2):19-29. This study of children ages 6-12 confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation raised the non-verbal performance of school children whose diets lack essential nutrients. Supplementation resulted in a gain in IQ scores and academic performance.
Starobrat-Hermelin,B;Kozielec T: The effects of magnesium psychological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD.Magnes Res 1997;10(2):149-56. This study assesses the influence of Magnesium supplementation on hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. Children aged 7-12 years diagnosed as ADHD participated in this 6 month study. Results of the study recognized that a significant increase of magnesium, as measured in the contents of hair samples, showed a significant decrease in hyperactivity.
Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6(1):7-17. Violent and anti-social behavior, such as threats, vandalism, disorderly and defiant actions are linked to low concentrations of water soluable vitamins in the blood. Correction of the nutrient intake through vitamin-mineral supplementation improves brain function and lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior. This was a study of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years.
Black MM: Zinc deficiency and child development. Am J Clin Nutr1998;68(suppl):464S-469S. Zinc, a trace metal present in the brain, contributes to its structure and function. There is evidence that a deficiency in this metal delays cognitive development and may interfere with cognitive performance. This article suggests that the relationship between a zinc deficiency and cognitive development may vary by the age of the child.
Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B: Assessment of magnesium levels in children with ADHD. Magnes Res1997;10(2):143-8. The conclusion from this recent study is that magnesium deficiency in children with ADHD occurs more frequently than in healthy children. The research focused on a group of 116 children, primarily boys, ages 9-12.
Stevens LJ, et al.: Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiol Behav 1996;59(4-5):915-20. This study compared boys ages 6 to 12 with low fatty acid levels to those with higher level of fatty acids. More learning and health problems were found in the boys with lower fatty acid concentrations. Using the Connors’ Rating Scale, this group was also found to have a greater number of behavior problems, temper tantrums and sleep problems.
Carlton RM, Ente G, Blum L.: Rational dosages of nutrients have a prolonged effect on learning disabilities. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6(3):85-91. Learning disabled children in this study showed significant academic and behavioral improvements within a few weeks with treatment of nutrient supplements. A gain in reading comprehension occurred within the first year. The results of this study support the concept that learning disabilities may in some cases are a nutrient responsive disorder.
Colgan M, Colgan L.: Do nutrient supplements and dietary changes affect learning and emotional reactions of children with learning difficulties? Nutr Health 1984;3(1-2);69-77. Children in this study were given an individually designed vitamin and mineral supplement and their diets were changed to reduce sugars and refined foods. The subjects in the study, ages 5-15 years, were observed to have improvements in behavior in school as well as at home. The group also made great gains in reading skills and scored higher on standardized tests.
Bruner AB, et al.: Randomized study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anemic iron-deficient adolescent girls. Lancet 1996;348(9033):992-6. A group of teen aged high school girls who were determined to be iron deficient participated in an 8-week study. Results of screening at the end of trial period showed that girls who received iron supplementation performed better on verbal learning and memory tests than those who did not.
Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J.: Vitamin Supplementation for one year improves mood. Neuropsychobiology 1995;32(2)98-105. This study explored the benefits of taking vitamin supplements as a way of influencing mood. Both the male and female subjects reported that after 12 months of taking vitamin supplements they experienced a more agreeable mood. Female subjects in particular reported a feeling of more composure and better mental health after an increase in their level of thiamin.
Walsh WJ et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol Behav 1997;49(1):327-9. Blood samples taken from a group of male patients age 3 to 20 years were analyzed for copper and zinc concentrations. The patients had been diagnosed as violence prone and assaultive. A statistically higher level of these elements than is normal was found in the blood samples of these patients, indicating a possible link to violent and aggressive behavior patterns.
Gibson RS.: Zinc, a critical nutrient in growth and development. New Zealand Medical Journal 1998; 111(1061). Signs of zinc deficiency can include genetic disorders, poor growth and weight gain among children, poor appetite and lethargy. Zinc supplements when used in conjunction with a balanced diet and adequate nutritional intake can improve and often eliminate these problems.
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